6. Aftermath of Naseby…

A Timeline of Events

14 June 1645

Battle of Naseby is the last major engagement of the First Civil War. Charles I flees to Wales. Fairfax re-takes Leicester & defeats Goring at Langport.

September 1645

Charles I dismisses Prince Rupert following loss of Bristol to Fairfax.

April 1646

Last battle of English Civil War at Stow on the Wold.

April 1646

Charles escapes from Oxford – surrenders to the Scottish army at Newark.

January 1647

The Scots sell the king to the English Parliament for £100,000

1648 – The Second Civil War

A secret treaty between Charles I and the Scots leads to Scottish invasion of England

17-19 August 1648

Battle of Preston – Cromwell defeats the Scots

December 1648

Following Pride’s Purge of moderates in Parliament Charles I is put on trial for his misdeeds. The trial is orchestrated by Cromwell, and 57 judges sign the king’s death warrant.

30 January 1649 

Execution of Charles I outside Whitehall Palace.

The Battle of Naseby was the last major engagement of the First Civil War. Although fighting continues into 1646, the Royalists are a beaten force. Charles I flees into Wales before surrendering to the Scots at Newark in 1646.  The Scots negotiate the sale of the king back to Parliament for the sum of £100,000.  He is kept under house arrest, near Naseby at Holdenby House; but continues to negotiate with his former enemies.

In 1648, religious divisions between the Scots and the English lead to the Second Civil War. Cromwell and Fairfax defeat the Scots. The New Model Army determine to hold the king to account, and Pride’s Purge of moderates in Parliament leads to the decision to try the king for his misdeeds. In December 1648, they commence the trial of Charles I orchestrated by Cromwell – and 57 judges sign the king’s death warrant. On the 30 January 1649, the execution of Charles I takes place outside Whitehall Palace. At the same time the monarchy and House of Lords are abolished, and England becomes a Commonwealth.

1650-51 sees the Third Civil War ravage the three kingdoms. Charles II allies with the Scots, but they are defeated by Cromwell at Battle of Worcester. Charles II evades capture, and escapes to France. For the rest of the decade Cromwell rules Britain as Lord Protector.

After Cromwell’s death in 1659, King Charles II is invited to return to the throne in 1660.

The death warrant of Charles I – source National Archives Website

The Execution of King Charles I

The Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell


Coat of Arms of the Protectorate